Selected publications

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1. A. Woszczyna, W. Czaja, K. Głód, Z. A. Golda, R. A. Kycia, A. Odrzywołek, P. Plaszczyk, L. M. Sokołowski, S. J. Szybka
ccgrg: The symbolic tensor analysis package with tools for general relativity
Wolfram Library Archive, vol. 8848 (2014).
[abstract] [journal]

Riemann and Weyl curvature, covariant derivative, Lie derivative, the first and the second fundamental form on hyper-surfaces, as well as basic notions of relativistic hydrodynamics (expansion, vorticity, shear) are predefined functions of the package. New tensors are easy to define. Instructions, basic examples, and some more advanced examples are attached to the package. Characteristic feature of the ccgrg package is the specific coupling between the functional programming and the Parker-Christensen index convention. This causes that no particular tools to rising/lowering tensor indices neither to the tensor contractions are needed. Tensor formulas are written in the form close to that of classical textbooks in GRG, with the only difference that the summation symbol appears explicitly. Tensors are functions, not matrixes, and their components are evaluated lazily. This means that only these components which are indispensable to realize the final task are computed. The memoization technique prevents repetitive evaluation of the same quantities. This saves both, time and memory.

2. Wojciech Czaja, Zdzislaw A. Golda, Andrzej Woszczyna
The acoustic wave equation in the expanding universe. Sachs-Wolfe theorem
The Mathematica Journal, vol. 13 (2011).
[abstract] [journal] [cdf]

This article considers the acoustic field propagating in the radiation-dominated universe of arbitrary space curvature. The field equations are reduced to the d’Alembert equation in an auxiliary static Robertson-Walker spacetime and dispersion relations are discussed. *supported by the grant from The John Templeton Foundation

3. Marek Szydlowski, Adam Krawiec, Wojciech Czaja
Phantom cosmology as a simple model with dynamical complexity
Phys. Rev., vol. E72, p. 036221 (2005).
[abstract] [preprint] [journal]

We study the Friedman-Robertson-Walker model with phantom fields modeled in terms of scalar fields. We apply the Ziglin theory of integrability and find that the flat model is nonintegrable. Then we cannot expect to determine simple analytical solutions of the Einstein equations. We demonstrate that there is only a discrete set of parameters where this model is integrable. For comparison we describe the phantoms fields in terms of the barotropic equation of state. It is shown that in contrast to the phantoms modeled as scalar fields, the dynamics is always integrable and phase portraits are contracted. In this case we find the duality relation.

4. Marek Szydlowski, Wojciech Czaja
Modified Friedmann cosmologies -Theory and observations
Annals Phys. , vol. 320, pp. 261-281 (2005).
[abstract] [preprint] [journal]

This paper shows the results of the investigation of a class of Cardassian scenarios of the evolution of the universe in the formulation of the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. That theory allowed us to analyze all solutions for all possible initial conditions on the phase plane. In the Cardassian models we find that big-rip singularities are present as a typical behavior in the future if $n < 0$. We were also able to find some exact solution for the flat Cardassian models as well as a duality relation. In turn for the statistical analysis of SNIa data, without any priors on the matter content in the model, we obtain that the big-rip scenario is favored. The potential function for the Hamiltonian description of dynamics was reconstructed from the SNIa data (inverse dynamical problem).

5. Marek Szydlowski, Wojciech Czaja
Particle-Like Description in Quintessential Cosmology
Phys. Rev., vol. D69, p. 083518 (2004).
[abstract] [preprint] [journal]

Assuming equation of state for quintessential matter: $p=w(z)\rho$, we analyse dynamical behaviour of the scale factor in FRW cosmologies. It is shown that its dynamics is formally equivalent to that of a classical particle under the action of 1D potential $V(a)$. It is shown that Hamiltonian method can be easily implemented to obtain a classification of all cosmological solutions in the phase space as well as in the configurational space. Examples taken from modern cosmology illustrate the effectiveness of the presented approach. Advantages of representing dynamics as a 1D Hamiltonian flow, in the analysis of acceleration and horizon problems, are presented. The inverse problem of reconstructing the Hamiltonian dynamics (i.e. potential function) from the luminosity distance function $d_{L}(z)$ for supernovae is also considered.

6. Marek Szydlowski, Wojciech Czaja
Stability of FRW cosmology with a generalized Chaplygin gas
Phys. Rev., vol. D69, p. 023506 (2004).
[abstract] [preprint] [journal]

We apply methods of dynamical systems to study the behavior of a universe dominated by the generalized Chaplygin gas. We reduce the dynamics to a two-dimensional Hamiltonian system and study its behavior for various ranges of parameters. The dynamics is studied on the phase plane by using methods of a qualitative analysis of differential equations. The behavior of trajectories at infinity is studied in some convenient coordinates introduced on the phase plane. Hence we show that the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with the generalized Chaplygin gas is structurally stable. We clearly find the domains of cosmic acceleration as well as conditions for which the horizon problem is solved. We also define some general class of fluids which generalize the Chaplygin gas. The dynamics of such models in terms of energy conditions is also discussed.

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